CBBC Newsround: Scientist warning over climate change and global warming

The Great Barrier Reef off the northeastern coast of Australia in December 2017

In the 728-page document, the United Nations organization detailed how Earth's weather, health and ecosystems would be in better shape if the world's leaders could somehow limit future human-caused warming to just 0.9 degrees Fahrenheit (a half degree Celsius) from now, instead of the globally agreed-upon goal of 1.8 degrees F (1 degree C).

If people don't act now, the report says, we will hit 1.5 C somewhere between 2030 and 2052.

The date, which falls within the lifetime of many people alive today, is based on current levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.The report makes it clear that climate change is here already - and that what comes next could be even worse, unless urgent global action is taken. To get there, emissions would have to be cut by 45 per cent from 2010 levels by 2030, with further action required by 2050.

Scientists with the Nobel Prize-winning IPCC said in order to have even a 50-50 chance of staying under the 1.5 degree cap, the world must become "carbon neutral" by 2050.

She said Canadians do not need to change what they do to cut emissions, but rather need to change how they do it.

Baxter said from 2017-2019 they will have added 41 staff members working on climate change and have been making progress on things like a home energy loan program and highrise energy loan program. "This means that any remaining emissions would need to be balanced by removing Carbon dioxide from the air", it says.

The impact of 1.5 degrees Celsius warming is greater than what was anticipated earlier while the impacts at two degrees Celsius are "catastrophic" for the poor and for developing nations such as India, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) said.

"Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5°C or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems", Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II Hans-Otto Pörtner said. It envisions a scenario in which the USA acts alone on climate change, not in tandem with the 194 other countries that agreed to emissions reductions in the Paris Agreement on climate change.

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"The next few years are probably the most important in human history", IPCC co-chair Debra Roberts, head of the Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department in South Africa, told Agence France-Presse. The planet is already experiencing the effects of global warming.

The review of thousands of scientific papers also said the spread of disease and economic damage and harm to yields of crops will be less severe at 1.5C than 2C, as will the extinction of species.

This one-two punch poses a powerful call to action: maybe the combination of messages can motivate change where the consensus of 97% of global climate change research scientists has failed to achieve action in line with the Paris Accord.

What Will We See Once Global Warming Is Limited To 1.5C? We can't find any historical analogies for it.

Small islands and coastal cities such as NY and Mumbai risk going underwater without the installation of sea barriers.

Such "carbon removal" might happen by developing better technology to take out carbon dioxide from the atmosphere - now an extremely expensive process - or by planting many more forests that could be harvested and burned for energy, with emissions pumped into underground storage.

Countries are already seeing an increase in extreme weather and rising sea levels as a result of the increase in average global temperatures of 1 degree above pre-industrial levels that has already occurred, the IPCC study said. And, we have certain areas in the world, which are extremely sensitive. But a lower temperature increase would allow humanity more precious time with which to adapt to the adverse conditions presented by climate change.

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