Macron annonce une loi contre les "fake news" en période électorale

French President Emmanuel Macron leaves after delivering his New Year wishes to the press at the Elysee Palace in Paris

A l'occasion de son discours du nouvel an, Emmanuel Macron a annoncé un projet de loi à venir contre les Fake news en "période électorale" en France: "J'ai décidé que nous allions faire évoluer notre dispositif juridique pour protéger la vie démocratique de ces fausses nouvelles".

Si le président de la République a également annoncé un renforcement des pouvoirs du CSA (Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel) et un projet de loi pour réformer l'audiovisuel public, il n'a en revanche rien dit concernant les " fake news " et les malhonnêtetés qui émanent parfois d'individus parfaitement identifiés comme lors de " L'Émission politique " du 30 novembre 2017 ou, plus récemment, avec un tweet de Jean-Michel Aphatie constituant une faute professionnelle évidente. Les deux prédécesseurs de l'actuel président n'ont pas souvent réitéré l'exercice. En période électorale, "les plateformes se verront ainsi imposer des obligations de transparence accrue sur tous les contenus sponsorisés, afin de rendre publique l'identité des annonceurs et de ceux qui les contrôlent mais aussi de limiter les montants consacrés à ces contenus".

Dans le viseur du président, l'horizontalité des informations qui donnent à toutes les nouvelles, vraies ou fausses, "le même rang". Une décision qui fait polémique auprès de l'opposition qui met en avant la liberté d'expression.

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Les décrypteurs de service auront tout de suite repéré qu'Emmanuel Macron n'a toujours pas digéré la publication massive de mails privés destinés à déstabiliser sa candidature présidentielle, déplaisant alors aux commanditaires cachés de cette opération qui sentaient fort la vodka russe. Le chef de l'Etat a par ailleurs déclaré soutenir une réflexion de RSF sur les principes journalistiques. Il peut tout à fait le faire lorsqu'il estime qu'une fake news est susceptible de troubler la paix publique, ce qui est notamment le cas lorsque cela fausse les résultats d'une élection.

Alors que Mitterrand, à la fin de son règne, prédisait aux journalistes qu'ils seraient emportés par le même rejet qu'ils avaient contribué à nourrir contre les politiques, Macron les enrôle à ses côtés pour défendre la démocratie contre la menace populiste. Une "nouvelle action" sera mise en place dans ce sens. Mais, quand des éditorialistes écrivaient, à la suite de la presse américaine en décembre 1989 (6), que la répression par le régime de Ceaucescu en Roumanie avait provoqué des centaines de morts à Timisoara, montraient même des photos de ces "charniers", alors que l'on a appris par la suite que tout cela était faux, comment l'appeler? Quand une information fausse est sciemment et en toute connaissance de cause diffusée, nous sommes en présence d'un délit qui est déjà punit par la loi. "Si l'on regarde bien, explique Patrick Eveno, président de l'Observatoire de la déontologie de l'information (ODI), le Cheval de Troie était en quelque sorte déjà une fake news." . "C'est typique des fake news". Pas en créant un doublage grossier, mais en synthétisant sa voix et ses intonations et en synchronisant le mouvement des lèvres avec les mots prononcés. La mauvaise foi de celui qui est à l'origine ou diffuse les fausses nouvelles ou les fake news reste un critère essentiel au déclenchement des poursuites. Ce qui est défini, c'est l'intention de propager une fausse information. "Vous allez substituer une vérité officielle par une autre, c'est très compliqué".

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