The increasing burden of non communicable diseases in India

Risks of lifestyle diseases particularly ischaemic heart disease stroke and diabetes are very high in Punjab Tamil Nadu Haryana and Andhra Pradesh

"The use of solid fuels, a major contributor to air pollution is also higher in these states", explained Bhargav Krishna, a research fellow at Public Health Foundation of India. These included censuses, vital registration, Sample Registration System, large-scale national household surveys, other population-level surveys and cohort studies, disease surveillance data, disease programme-level data, administrative records of health services, disease registries, and a wide range of other studies conducted across India. "It needs both macro and micro planning", said JPNadda, Union health minister.

With a population of 1.3 billion, nearly one-fifth of the world's population lives in India.

The proportion of all deaths in India due to communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases reduced from 53.6% in 1990 to 27.5% in 2016, while those due to non-communicable diseases increased from 37.9% to 61.8%, and those due to injuries changed from 8.5% to 10.7%.

The burden from 333 disease conditions and injuries and 84 risk factors were computed for each state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

However, there are major variations across states depending on their development status. After child and maternal malnutrition, which was India's leading risk factor for health loss in 2016 causing 14.6 per cent of the country's total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), air pollution was the second leading risk factor in India as a whole.

Releasing the India State-level Disease Burden report and technical papers in New Delhi on Tuesday, Mr Naidu said, high disease burden caused by malnutrition in India must be tackled soon to enable the next generation of Indians to reach their full potential in their personal development as well as the nation's development.

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Infectious and associated diseases made up the majority of disease burden in most of the states in 1990, but this was less than half in all states in 2016.

The contribution of injuries to the total disease burden has increased in most states since 1990, affecting the young adults (15-39 years of age) the maximum. "The range of disease burden or DALY rate varied three-fold for road injuries and six-fold for self-harm among the states of India in 2016", said the report.

The report provides the first comprehensive set of findings for the distribution of diseases and risk factors across every state of India from 1990 to 2016, utilizing all available data and in close engagement with many leading health scientists of India. However, there was an nearly two-fold difference in this disease burden rate among the states in 2016, with Assam, Uttar Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh having the highest rates, and Kerala and Goa the lowest rates. The burden due to road injuries was much higher in males than in females.

Air pollution is proving to be another significant threat, especially household air pollution, which was responsible for 5% of the total disease burden in India in 2016, and outdoor air pollution for 6%.

While air pollution was the third largest risk factor in 1990, it has moved up to the second leading risk factor in 2016 owing to rising air pollution levels across the country.

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