The world's earliest evidence of grape wine-making has been detected in 8,000-year-old pottery jars unearthed in Georgia, making the tradition nearly 1,000 years older than previously thought, researchers said Monday. Georgia is one of the flawless environments for such undertakings, as it hosts about 500 species and varieties of grapes used only for wine, together with many others cultivated for fruits.
Georgia, which has a long heritage of winemaking, is positioned at a crossroads between Western Asia and Eastern Europe, and the grape identified in jar fragments excavated from two Neolithic-era villages is Vitis vinifera - aka the "Eurasian grapevine", from which almost all kinds of modern wine originate.
As innovative as this early viticulture was, though, it wasn't the first time ancient humans mashed grapes into a fermented liquid and made a decision to drink it.
But the study's lead author, Patrick McGovern, a scientific director at the Penn Museum in Philadelphia who also co-authored the 1996 Nature study that placed the earliest evidence for grape wine in Iran, said the search for the truly oldest wine artifacts will continue.
The Neolithic Period (around 15,200 BCE to 2,000 BCE) was characterized by the beginning of farming, the domestication of animals, the development of crafts such as pottery and weaving, and the production of polished stone tools.
(A) Representative early Neolithic jar from Khramis Didi-Gora.
The jars were most likely for storing wine in these areas as they depicted images of grape clusters and a man dancing.
To explore whether winemaking was indeed a part of life in the region, the team focused on collecting and analysing fragments of pottery from two Neolithic villages, as well as soil samples.
Researchers used a combination of mass spectrometry and chromatography techniques to identify the compounds found in wine in the ancient jar fragments.
The results, published in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, reveal that for eight of the fragments, including the two previously unearthed, the team found traces of tartaric acid - a substance found in grapes in large quantities. The researchers said that the decorations possibly represent grapes. This finding makes it the oldest know evidence of wine-making in the world, at 6000 BC in the Neolithic period. Moreover, there are none of the telltale signs that the pots were used for syrup-making, while grape juice would have fermented within a matter of days.
This "discovery dates the origin of the practice to the Neolithic period around 6,000 BC, pushing it back 600-1,000 years from the previously accepted date", according to the study.
"The wine was probably made similarly to the traditional qvevri method in Georgia today, where the grapes are crushed and the fruit, stems, and seeds are all fermented together", Batiuk said.
In the world of top drops there's aged wine and then there's 8,000 year-old wine.
"We believe this is the oldest example of the domestication of a wild-growing Eurasian grapevine exclusively for the production of wine", said co-author Stephen Batiuk, a senior research associate at the University of Toronto.
Excavations in the Republic of Georgia by the Gadachrili Gora Regional Archaeological Project Expedition (GRAPE), a joint undertaking between the University of Toronto (U of T) and the Georgian National Museum, have uncovered evidence of the earliest winemaking anywhere in the world. "They have been saying for years that they have a very long history of winemaking and so we're really cementing that position".
The research was presented at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2017, in California. A new research adds to the multiple benefits of coffee consumption, making all coffee lovers happy.
Carbonfibre dominates the driving environment, adorning the centre console, the steering wheel and folding display behind it. This means power of 710bhp from McLaren's turbocharged 4.0-litre V8, a top speed of 212mph and a 0-62mph time of 2.8sec.
APG Asset Management N.V. owned approximately 0.46% of Chipotle Mexican Grill worth $40,303,000 as of its most recent SEC filing. Finally, Numeric Investors LLC increased its holdings in shares of Chipotle Mexican Grill by 8,366.4% during the second quarter.
GLK, whose real name is William Bensussen , just filed suit against Chelsea Tadros , RaeAn Medina and one of their boyfriends. He likewise guarantees that it was the ladies who at first propositioned him, as opposed to the a different way.
It figures to get a whole lot tougher in the Windy City, where they'll face what could be coach Tom Izzo's most talented team. The Spartans have a 3-3 record in the Champions Classic, including a 2-0 record at the United Center.
Amazon was a late entrant to the Chinese cloud market which is dominated by local players like AliCloud and China Telecom. Microsoft operates its Azure cloud services unit in partnership with China-based 21Vianet Group.
The total number of supercomputers on the list using Intel processors rose to 94.2%, up from 92.8% six months ago. Despite the switching roles, the U.S. and China remain the dominant forces in supercomputing worldwide.
In a double dose of cheer, Vodafone also hiked its full-year earnings growth targets from between 4% and 8% to around 10%. Operating profit jumped nearly a third to €2bn in the first half of 2017, boosted by falling costs and lower taxation.
Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee announced the development on Twitter, calling it "sweet news for us all". The West Bengal claim was on the basis of historical facts that Bengal is the father of Rosgulla.
First Foundation Advsrs holds 0.16% of its portfolio in Blackrock Credit Allocation Income Trust (NYSE:BTZ) for 196,520 shares. Among 5 analysts covering BlackRock LT Municipal Advantage Trust BTA ( NYSE:BTA ), 3 have Buy rating, 1 Sell and 1 Hold.
Agreed, LEDs do not emit stable lights - they flicker - but most high-end phones do not have issues with this behavior. However if you've ever tried to record a video of a monitor or TV, you might have noticed that effect.
Women, revamp your diet today. You're more prone to diabetes
Now the charity is urging for increased provision of psychological support for people living with diabetes across Scotland. She has recently revealed that she has to inject herself with insulin up to five times a day to manage her condition.
Aramark (ARMK) Scheduled to Post Earnings on Tuesday
Rockefeller Financial Services Inc. raised its position in Aramark Holdings Corp.by 31,373.9% in the second quarter. Vanguard's stake was worth $848.34 million at the time of purchase. 11,190 are owned by Metropolitan Life Ins Ny.